Research Phases

The following is an overview of the phases of this research, up to and including the present study. During the current stage of research, we are including only those who are 18 years of age and older.

Phase I

Produced preliminary summaries regarding these relationship/single statuses. The data and results of Phase I were used to inform Phase II.

Phase II

Phase II produced additional summaries and provided invaluable insights, raising new, pertinent questions. Nineteen peer-reviewed articles have been published from that data, a list of those is available on our Results page. The data and results of Phase II were used to inform Phase III.

Phase III

Is the present survey to refine the survey and summaries. If you are interested in participating, click "Begin Survey" below.

Creating Future Support Resources

The questions and results from the initial 4 Options Survey were used to inform the LGBTQIA+ Peacemaking Book Project, which involves two guidebooks and 12 e-resources about feeling secure within yourself and relating to others with confidence. These self-help guides are for sexual and gender minority individuals who are questioning which life path might fit best for them or who want more ideas and skills in developing their resilience in dealing with discrimination and life stressors. They are not designed to sway individuals to live one option or another or to invalidate any life choices.

We hope the guidebooks and e-resources will also help friends, family members, educators, clinicians, and religious communities be more informed and supportive.

Building on the invaluable information gained from previous studies and this upcoming 2024 survey, we hope to consolidate the insights gained to publish additional studies, update the above-mentioned book project, create additional resources for various demographics, and train clinicians, academics and other providers.

Type of Study

This is an exploratory study. The type of sampling is called snowball sampling where one person participates and then recommends other people who meet the inclusion criteria. The results are not generalizable to any identifiable group of people but will be helpful as an exploratory effort to understand what may help increase life satisfaction in these relationship and single options.

Wide Range of Perspectives

We hope the survey will be informational and representational. That is, we hope to gather experiences from as many diverse individuals to represent the range of what is possible and necessary for flourishing.

We encourage individuals who experience same-sex/gender attractions or gender incongruence/dysphoria but do not identify as LGBTQIA+ to participate in this survey. Additionally, we are keen to understand the similarities and differences between the experiences of LGBTQIA+-identified individuals and those who have diverse ways of self-identifying.

Managing Biases

In creating this survey, in addition to assembling an ideologically diverse research team, the authors gathered diverse feedback from additional professionals who represent a wide range, including seemingly opposite ends, of the sociopolitical spectrum. The study’s authors also plan on checking their data analysis with such individuals to ensure that results will be interpreted in a less biased way and, as one reviewer noted, so that “certain outcomes will be as valued or as accurately reflected as others.”


Participating in this survey may be educational. Participants may learn a variety of ways to consider sexuality, gender, religion/spirituality, relationships, life satisfaction, and coping with stigma/discrimination/rejection.

This survey and project have received Institutional Review Board approval from Utah State University.

For exclusive updates on this important research and latest developments or to be part of future studies, please provide your email address via the following link: