2017 survey


The following are the results of two distinct studies.

The first section encompasses peer-reviewed articles summarizing data from Phase II of the 4 Options Survey conducted in 2017. This survey covered a wide range of relationship statuses, identities, and religious backgrounds. 

Following this, a specific subset of the data was selected for further study. This subset included specifically those participants who had been baptized as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints at some point in their lives and consented to be part of a 10-year longitudinal study. This longitudinal component involves biennial follow-ups with the participants, allowing for an in-depth exploration of their experiences and perspectives over time.

The articles below are arranged in descending chronological order, starting with the most recent publications and proceeding to the oldest.

Rosik, C. H., Lefevor, G. T., & Beckstead, A. L. (2023). Sexual minorities responding to sexual orientation distress: Examining 33 methods and the effects of sexual identity labeling and theological viewpoint. Spirituality and Clinical Practice, 10(3), 245-260. (Download PDF)

Utilizing a sample of 281 sexual minorities who reported having had or currently experiencing distress about their sexual orientation, we examined participants’ ratings of perceived helpfulness of 33 methods for addressing this distress found in the literature. We examined these methods for both the full sample, between those who did or did not identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or other (LGB +), and between three theologically different groups: theologically conservative (TC), theologically nonconservative (TNC), and nontheological (NT). Findings from the full sample indicated methods that promoted acceptance of or were neutral toward same-sex sexuality were consistently perceived to be helpful while aversive cognitive and behavioral techniques were reliably rated as somewhat to moderately harmful. Thirteen methods were rated as helpful by all subgroups. Other methods displayed much greater variability in their ratings. These methods mostly reflected religiously motivated intentions to live in congruence with religious values by restricting and otherwise discouraging same-sex attractions and behavior. However, an examination of group differences between participants who were LGB +-identified and those who were not revealed these methods tended to be perceived as mildly to somewhat harmful for the LGB +-identified group but mildly to somewhat helpful for those not identified as LGB+. Participants reporting a TC perspective often reported more helpfulness for these methods than TNC participants, who in turn reported less harmfulness than NT participants. We close with a discussion about the implications of these findings for the provision of clinical care, the conducting of research, and the development of public policy.

Rosik, C. H., Lefevor, G. T., McGraw, J. S., & Beckstead, A. L. (2022). Is conservative religiousness inherently associated with poorer health for sexual minorities? Journal of Religion and Health, 61(1), 3055-3075. (Download PDF)

Results of path analysis involving sexual minority participants (N = 1317) from diverse sociopolitical contexts revealed health outcomes to be associated with internalized homonegativity and the resolution of conflict between religious and sexual minority identities. Contrary to expectations, several markers of religiousness were not directly associated with either improved or worsened health outcomes for depression or anxiety. However, religious activity moderated the influence of internalized homonegativity (IH) on depression such that IH was less strongly related to depression among individuals who frequently attended religious services than among individuals who infrequently attended religious services. These findings have special salience for advancing a more accurate understanding of conservatively religious sexual minorities and directing culturally sensitive research, clinical services, and public policy.

Lefevor, G. T., Skidmore, S. J., McGraw, J. S., Davis, E. B., & Mansfield, T. R. (2022). Religiousness and minority stress in conservatively religious sexual minorities: Lessons from Latter-day Saints. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 32(4), 289-305. (Download PDF)

Sexual minorities who engage in conservative religions may experience both stress and support from their engagement with their faith. However, it is unclear how religion/spirituality and minority stress may simultaneously affect mental health. To address this gap, we recruited 1,083 U.S. adults reporting varied engagement with a conservative religious tradition, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon; LDS), belonging to one of four groups: (a) heterosexual, LDS; (b) sexual minority, LDS; (c) heterosexual, nonLDS; and (d) sexual minority, nonLDS. We found that LDS sexual minorities reported more religiousness/spirituality and described experiencing more minority stressors, relative to nonLDS sexual minorities. Interaction analyses indicated that internalized homonegativity was more strongly associated with depression for LDS sexual minorities than for nonLDS sexual minorities. We suggest that aspects of religion/spirituality may buffer the effects of minority stress experienced by sexual minorities who choose to remain engaged with conservative religious traditions.

Rosik. C. H., Lefevor, G. T.., & Beckstead, A. L. (2021). Sexual Minorities who Reject an LGB Identity: Who Are They and Why Does It Matter?. Issues in Law and Medicine, 36(1), 27-43. PMID: 33939341 (Download PDF)

Although some persons with minority sexual orientations do not identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), Minority Stress Theory (Meyer, 2003) has largely been developed utilizing LGB-identified samples. We examined a sample (n = 274) of sexual minorities with diverse religious and sexual identity labels to determine if those rejecting versus adopting an LGB identity were different in terms of religious, sexual, relational, and health characteristics. Results suggested those who reject an LGB identity are more likely to be religiously active, full members of their church, and highly intrinsic and theologically conservative in their religious viewpoint. They further reported having slightly more lifetime heterosexual attractions, fantasies, and behaviors; greater internalized homonegativity; and being more interested in having children and a child-centered family life. They were also more likely to be single and celibate or in a heterosexual relationship. Contrary to expectations, these differences were not associated with health differences in depression, anxiety, and social flourishing. LGB-identified participants did report higher life satisfaction than those rejecting an LGB identity, but this difference was not interpretively meaningful when considered in reference to population norms. We conclude with a discussion of the potential implications of our findings for research, legal and professional advocacy, and clinical care.

Lefevor, G. T., Schow, R. L., Beckstead, A. L., Raynes, M., Young, N. T., & Rosik, C. H. (2021). Domains related to single/relationship status satisfaction among sexual minorities raised conservatively religious. Spirituality and Clinical Practice, 8(2), 112-131. (Download PDF | Summary of Paper)

Sexual minorities raised conservatively religious often make relationship decisions in a context of conflicting needs and expectations. We examined group differences in a sample of 452 sexual minorities who were equally satisfied in 1 of 4 single/relationship options to promote self-determination and to understand how each group might differ from the others. Single and celibate individuals more often reported homonegative beliefs, religiousness, sex negativity, and conservative values. Single but not celibate individuals more often reported a stronger sex drive, sex positivity, homopositive beliefs, nonreligiousness, and liberal values. Those in mixed-orientation relationships more often reported a bisexual orientation, homonegative beliefs, children being important, fears of disappointing family, religiousness, and conservative values. Those in same-sex relationships more often reported strong same-sex orientation, sex positivity, homopositive beliefs, nonreligiousness, and liberal values. These findings indicate characteristics of individuals satisfied in each option that may provide a needed reference group for therapists to help clients explore self-determination in making life decisions.

Bridges, J. G., Lefevor, G. T., Schow, R. L., & Rosik, C. H. (2020). Identity affirmation and mental health among sexual minorities: A raised-Mormon sample. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 16(3), 293-311. (Download PDF)

How can someone successfully integrate a lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity and a Mormon identity? Using a sample of 530 LGB-identified individuals raised in the Latter-day Saints (LDS) church, this study asks how factors of empowerment are associated with sexual identity affirmation and mental health outcomes. We found that sexual identity support, connection needs support, LGBT community support, and educational attainment were significantly associated with more positive mental health outcomes. LGB women who were raised Mormon appear to fare worse than men, on average. We also found that those raised Mormon who had disaffiliated with the LDS church reported significantly lower levels of internalized homonegativity than those still affiliated. Clinicians working with LGB Mormons and post-Mormons should consider the effect that affirming sources of support may have on positive mental health outcomes.

Lefevor, G. T., Sorrell, S. A., Kappers, G., Plunk, A., Schow, R. L., Rosik, C. H., & Beckstead, A. L. (2020). Same-sex attracted, not LGBQ: The implications of sexual identity labeling on religiosity, sexuality, and health among Mormons. The Journal of Homosexuality, 67(7), 940-964. (Download PDF)

In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS church), beliefs about same-sex sexual attraction are carefully differentiated from beliefs about same-sex sexual behavior and identity, leading some to reject a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer (LGBQ) identity label in favor of declining a sexual identity or describing themselves as experiencing same-sex attraction (SSA). Using data from 1,128 sexual minority Mormons recruited from both politically conservative and liberal circles, we examined the relationship between rejecting an LGBQ identity and religiousness, attitudes toward sexuality, and health outcomes. We found that Mormons who reject an LGBQ identity were significantly more religious and less content with their sexuality but had similar health outcomes relative to LGBQ Mormons. We posit that these differences are best understood by differences in group affiliation and support, intersectional experiences with minority stressors, and the lack of generalizability of LGBQ constructs to those who reject an LGBQ identity.

Bridges, J. G., Lefevor, G. T., & Schow, R. L. (2019). Sexual satisfaction and mental health in mixed-orientation relationships: A Mormon sample of sexual minority partners. Journal of Bisexuality, 19(4), 515-538. (Download PDF)

This study explored predictors of sexual satisfaction for sexual minorities within mixed-orientation relationships (MOR) currently affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon). This sample of 272 sexual minorities in mixed-orientation relationships was taken from the larger 4 Options data set. Satisfaction and health within four sexual identity relationship options. The Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2018.1531333]. Results indicated that more other-sex sexual attraction and behavior significantly predicted sexual satisfaction indirectly through sexual attraction and sexual aversion to a current partner. Bisexual identified partners reported higher sexual satisfaction than LGB label rejecters, lesbian and gay counterparts, but scored highest on depression and anxiety. Clinicians working with Mormon clients in mixed-orientation relationships can help clients consider the role sexual attraction and aversion may play in their ability to flourish in a mixed-orientation relationship. Family members, non-familial support systems, and church leaders are encouraged to move towards creating a safer space for greater visibility of bisexual-identifying partners within mixed-orientation relationships.

Lefevor, G. T., Blaber, I. P., Huffman, C. E., Schow, R. L., Beckstead, A. L., Raynes, M., & Rosik, C. H. (2019). The role of religiousness and beliefs about sexuality in well-being among sexual minority Mormons. The Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12(4), 460-470.(Download PDF | Summary of Paper)

Sexual minorities raised in conservative religions often experience conflict between their sexual and religious identities that affects their well-being. Minority stress theory (Meyer, 2003) and cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) offer different explanations for when, why, and how this conflict may affect well-being. Using an intersectional lens (Crenshaw, 1989), we examined how religiousness and beliefs about sexuality relate to well-being among 1,128 lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer (LGBQ) and same-sex attracted (SSA) Mormons and former Mormons recruited from both politically conservative and liberal circles to explore the competing explanations offered by these theories. Supporting cognitive dissonance theory, we found that confused religious views and sporadic church attendance were negatively related to well-being and that individuals with moderate religious viewpoints and either frequent or no church attendance reported more well-being. Feeling resolved about conflicts between religion and sexuality was also positively related to well-being. Supporting minority stress theory, we found that authentic expression of sexuality, openness about experiences of same-sex attraction, and feeling positive about being LGBQ/SSA were positively related to well-being. We did not find a relationship between beliefs about the etiology of same-sex attraction and well-being. These findings further nuance literature guided by minority stress theory that has found a negative association between religiousness and well-being among sexual minorities. We encourage future research to examine cognitive dissonance between religious/sexual identities as a moderating variable when examining the effects of religiousness on well-being among sexual minorities.

Lefevor, G. T., Beckstead, A. L., Schow, R. L., Raynes, M., Mansfield, T. R., & Rosik, C. H. (2019). Satisfaction and health within four sexual identity relationship options. The Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 45(5), 355-369. (Download PDF | Summary of Paper)

AbstractUsing a sample of 1,782 same-sex attracted (SSA) and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identified participants, this study examined similarities and differences among those who are (a) single and celibate (SC); (b) single and not celibate (SNC); (c) in a heterosexual, mixed-orientation relationship (MOR); and (d) in a same-sex relationship (SSR). To reduce bias and increase generalizability, an ideologically diverse research team was formed. Participants in SSRs reported higher levels of some amount of satisfaction with their status (95%) compared to those in MORs (80%), those who are SC (42%) and those who are SNC (40%). The SSR group had the least depression and anxiety and the most life satisfaction and physical health, followed by the MOR group, followed by the two single groups. Results from a stepwise regression predicting satisfaction from important aspects of life and relationships identified that meeting needs for connection, intimacy, and mutual understanding was the strongest predictor of satisfaction across all options. Other significant variables included participant-defined authentic sexual expression, resolving conflicts with religion, and reducing depression and anxiety. Results may inform SSA/LGB individuals who are questioning which option fits best for them and help guide therapists who work with these individuals.

After commencing our initial survey, we selected a subset of our participants who were or had been affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We have set out to follow these participants for 10 years. 
Longitudinal Study—2020 Version

Studies in this section are those with this current and former Latter-day Saint subsample, with data gathered at the baseline of this 10-year period. The articles below are arranged in descending chronological order, starting with the most recent publications and proceeding to the oldest.

Skidmore, S. J., Sorrell, S. A., & Lefevor, G. T. (2023). Attachment, minority stress, and health outcomes among conservatively religious sexual minorities. Journal of Homosexuality, 70(3), 3171-3191. (Download PDF)

Sexual minority (SM) members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) face increased exposure to minority stressors as well as concerns of attachment injuries relative to their heterosexual counterparts. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model outlines the mutually reinforcing associations between adult attachment and sexual minority stress, positing that adult attachment is both influenced by experiences of minority stress and simultaneously capable of shaping minority stress experiences in adulthood. The present study explored how adult attachment style directly and indirectly affects minority stressors and health outcomes for LDS SMs. A sample of 602 LDS SMs completed a quantitative survey assessing attachment, minority stress, and health. Results indicated that an insecure attachment style related to increased minority stressors and depression, whereas a secure attachment style related to decreased minority stressors and increased life satisfaction. Further, attachment moderated the relationship between minority stressors and health outcomes, such that experiences of minority stress were related to a decrease in life satisfaction only for securely attached LDS SMs. However, securely attached LDS SMs still reported better health than insecurely attached LDS SMs, even when reporting high degrees of minority stressors. These findings add to the growing body of literature suggesting that attachment style has direct and indirect effects on health outcomes for SMs, including those from conservative religious backgrounds.

McGraw, J. S., Skidmore, S. J., Lefevor, G. T., Docherty, M., & Mahoney, A. (2023). Affirming and non-affirming religious beliefs predicting depression and suicide risk among Latter-day Saint sexual minorities. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 70(3), 293-306. (Download PDF)

Sexual minorities (SMs) who are current/former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDSs) report high levels of depression and risk for suicide. Recent research has suggested that specific LDS religious beliefs may be related to these negative mental health outcomes. Using two independent online samples of current/former LDS SMs (Sample 1 = 403; Sample 2 = 545), we tested associations of affirming/nonaffirming LDS beliefs with depression and suicide risk cross-sectionally (Sample 1), and then longitudinally (Sample 2) tested if religious/spiritual struggles and internalized stigma mediated these relationships. Cross-sectionally, non-affirming LDS beliefs were associated with higher depression, but effects disappeared when religious/spiritual struggles and internalized stigma were entered in the model. Affirming LDS beliefs were unrelated to depression and suicide risk. Longitudinally, after including earlier levels of internalized stigma, religious/spiritual struggles, depression, and suicide risk as controls, nonaffirming beliefs indirectly predicted more depression 2 months later (Time 3) through internalized stigma at 1 month (Time 2). These results suggest LDS beliefs may play an important role in the development and experience of depression for LDS sexual minorities. 

Skidmore, S. J., Lefevor, G. T., Larsen, E. R., Golightly, R. M., & Abreu, R. L. (2023). “We are scared of being kicked out of our religion!”: Common challenges and benefits for sexual minority Latter-day Saints. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 10(4), 663-674. (Download PDF)

This study explored common challenges and benefits reported by sexual minority people (SMP) in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (CJCLDS). A sample of 438 SMP members of the CJCLDS responded to a qualitative survey that asked participants to identify the challenges and benefits of identifying as SMPs in their faith. Participants reported several common challenges to identifying as an SMP in the CJCLDS, including lack of belongingness, identity conflict/confusion, distal stressors, proximal stressors, religious/spiritual struggles, mental health problems, and sexuality struggles. Participants reported several common benefits including increased empathy or compassion, a sense of belonging and happiness, religious/spiritual improvements, and perspective/personal growth. The results suggest that some SMP members of the CJCLDS experience more religious and sexuality struggles as well as a lack of belongingness due to their intersecting identities, whereas others seem to benefit from their religious involvement and find a sense of belongingness. Therapists who work with SMPs in the CJCLDS, and potentially other SMPs in non-affirming religions, should be aware of both the challenges and benefits reported by SMPs to help clients most effectively navigate difficulties arising from their intersecting identities.

Skidmore, S. J., Lefevor, G. T., Golightly, R. M., & Larsen, E. R. (2023). Religious sexual minorities, belongingness, and suicide risk: Does it matter where belongingness comes from? Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 15(3), 356-366. (Download PDF)

Sexual minorities (SMs) experience a unique set of stressors as a result of their minority status that can lead to adverse mental health outcomes, including increased suicidal ideation (SI). A sense of belongingness—particularly in sexual minority communities—has been shown to buffer these outcomes. It is less clear, however, how belongingness in communities that hold heteronormative values may relate to SI. The present study fills this gap through an analysis of data from 602 SM members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (CJCLDS; “Mormon” church). We examine how minority stressors and religiousness are related to SI for SMs and how a sense of belongingness in the CJCLDS and/or in SM communities may buffer SI. Results indicated that both minority stressors (e.g., concealment, internalized homonegativity [IH]), and religiousness (e.g., service attendance) were related to increased SI; however, a sense of belongingness in the CJCLDS was related to less SI. Interaction effects suggested that the presence of CJCLDS belongingness weakened the influence of IH on SI but strengthened the influence of concealment and service attendance on SI.

Lefevor, G. T., McGraw, J. S., & Skidmore, S. J. (2022). Suicidal ideation among active and nonactive/former Latter-day Saint sexual minorities. Journal of Community Psychology, 50(1), 445-464. (Download PDF)

Sexual minorities (SMs) in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) experience a number of unique risks related to their religious/spiritual and SM experience that may increase their likelihood of experiencing suicidal ideation (SI) and ultimately dying by suicide. However, it is unclear which aspects of these experiences are responsible for elevated SI. It is further unclear whether religiousness/spirituality and minority stress relate to SI similarly for active and non-active/former LDS SMs. To address this gap, we examined data from 602 active and non-active/former LDS SMs. Active and non-active LDS SMs reported similar degrees of SI and minority stress but differing degrees of religiousness/spirituality with active LDS SMs reporting more religiousness/spirituality than nonactive/former LDS SMs. Several variables were associated with increased SI in both groups including positive religious coping, interpersonal religious struggles, internalized homonegativity, and concealment. Other variables were associated with decreased SI in both groups including resolving conflict between sexual and religious identities, family support, and friend support. Our results suggest that whether LDS SMs are active in their faith is an important factor to consider when understanding how religiousness/spirituality and minority stress relate to SI.

After commencing our initial survey, we selected a subset of our participants who were or had been affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We have set out to follow these participants for 10 years. 
Longitudinal Study—2022 Version

Articles in this section come from data gathered from our sample of current and former members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, collected two years after baseline (Wave 1). The articles below are arranged in descending chronological order, starting with the most recent publications and proceeding to the oldest. 

Skidmore, S. J., Lefevor, G. T., Huynh, K. D.., & Berg, C. O. (2023). Development and validation of scales for coming out hypervigilance and positive coming out responses. Sexuality and Culture. Advance online publication. (Download PDF)

Coming out involves sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) disclosing their identity to others, and is often related to improved health, well-being, and social support. However, coming out is not always perceived as a positive event, and outcomes of identity disclosure may vary depending on how coming out is approached and how others respond. The present study reports on the development and validation of the Coming Out Vigilance (COV) and the Positive Coming Out Responses (PCOR) measures. Two subsamples of SGMs with varying degrees of outness—totaling 399 individuals—were utilized in the development and validation of these measures. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested final scales comprising three items for the COV and eight items for the PCOR. These measures demonstrated acceptable (COV) to excellent (PCOR) internal consistency, as well as metric and scalar invariance between relevant demographic groups. The COV evidenced strong convergent and discriminant validity, negatively correlating with other measures of outness and concealment typically between r = .2 and r = .5. The PCOR did not evidence convergent or discriminant validity with measures of outness or concealment, suggesting that positive coming out responses are conceptually distinct from outness. Both measures also evidenced predictive validity with measures of mental health, well-being, and sexual identity. Taken together, initial findings indicate that the COV and PCOR are psychometrically sound and may be utilized in both research and clinical settings.

Lefevor, G. T. (2023). Sexuality, religiousness, and mental health among sexual minority Latter-day Saints in other-gender relationships. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 49(8), 1013-1028. (Download PDF)

To guide therapists working with sexual minority individuals considering entering in an other-gender relationship, we present data from 82 sexual minority, current Latter-day Saints in other-gender relationships, 155 sexual minority, former Latter-day Saints in same-gender relationships, and 123 cisgender/heterosexual, current Latter-day Saints in other-gender relationships. Results suggest that relative to cisgender/heterosexual individuals, sexual minority individuals (both in same- and other-gender relationships), report being less happy in their relationship, viewing porn and masturbating more often, and experiencing greater religious struggles. Sexual minority individuals in both same- and other-gender relationships reported happiness in their relationships and lives; however, the two groups differed in a variety of ways. We found that, on average, sexual minority individuals in other-gender relationships (a) have less satisfying sex lives, (b) somewhat follow church teachings about sexual practices, (c) experience conflict about their life choices, (d) nuance their religious views to distinguish between affirming and non-affirming beliefs, (e) have difficult faith journeys, and (f) do not appear to experience mental health difficulties because of their relationship status. We encourage therapists to explore sexual, relational, and religious domains with their clients in helping each determine whether an other-gender relationship is possible for them.

Lefevor, G. T., Skidmore, S. J., Huynh, K. D., & McGraw, J. S. (2023). The Impact of Changes in Religion on Health Among Sexual Minority Mormons. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 33(3), 214-229. (Download PDF)

The current study presents data from the first longitudinal examination of sexual minority (SM) Mormons (n = 132). Over the course of 2 years, SM Mormons reported decreased psychological (e.g., orthodox beliefs), behavioral (e.g., service attendance), and social (interpersonal religious commitment) religiousness. Analyses revealed that, at baseline, service attendance was related to lower levels of meaning in life and higher levels of depression at time 2, while interpersonal religious commitment at baseline was related to higher levels of meaning in life and lower levels of depression. Latent change scores of religiousness suggested that decreases in interpersonal religious commitment over the 2 years predicted higher levels of depression and lower levels of meaning in life at time 2. We suggest that these results highlight the inherent difficulty in holding both a Mormon and SM identity, with trends implying that SM Mormons tend to disengage from their religious identity.

Lefevor, G. T., Meter, D. J., & Skidmore, S. J. (2023). Ways to navigate sexual minority and Latter-day Saint identities: A latent profile analysis. The Counseling Psychologist, 51(3), 368-394. (Download PDF)

Using a sample of 815 sexual minorities (SMs) with current or historical engagement with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, we examined (a) how many empirically distinct ways there are to navigate SM and religious identities and (b) whether these ways were related to health. A latent profile analysis, which grouped participants by religious/spiritual (i.e., religious commitment, service attendance, Christian orthodoxy) and SM identity (i.e., outness, identity centrality, sexuality support) variables, yielded a three-group solution: engaged Latter-day Saint (LDS) individuals, moderately engaged LDS individuals, and lapsed LDS individuals. Participants in these three classes did not significantly differ in SM variables or in physical health, mental health, or life satisfaction. Engaged LDS participants reported less substance use and more meaning in life than lapsed LDS participants, likely due to their religious engagement.

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